Defence and Security
This brochure is a summary of the main figures concerning Defence. It presents the budget data, the number of personnel, the armed forces’ equipment and the forces deployed overseas. 2016 budget results from the updating of the 2014-2019 Military Programming Law adopted in July 2015, by giving to the armed forces the means to deal with future challenges - both inside and outside mainland France - through an increase of €600M in the Defence budget (which has reached €32bn) and through the net creation of 2,300 jobs. 
The 2016 edition shows France’s long-term and unremitting commitment to developing useful links and joint actions in favour of our shared security. 
This brochure is a summary of the main figures concerning Defence. It presents the budget data, the number of personnel, the armed forces’ equipment and the forces deployed in operations. 
The digitalisation of French society is accelerating, with relentless growth in digital services, products and jobs. This has become a national issue. The digital transition favours innovation and growth, yet it simultaneously carries risks for the State, economic stakeholders and citizens. Cybercrime, espionage, propaganda, sabotage and excessive exploitation of personal data threaten digital trust and security, thus calling for a collective, coordinated response based on five strategic objectives. 
In March 2015, Michel Sapin, Minister for Finance and Public Accounts, presented eight measures to counter terrorist financing. 
The terrorist attacks in Paris demonstrated the ability of certain terrorist networks to secure underground funding, often in the form of small sums. This observation is behind the increase in financial and human resources for the Directorate General of Customs and Excise and the French Financial Intelligence Unit (TRACFIN) announced by the Prime Minister in January 2015. The finance and interior ministers also decided in January to step up cooperation between their intelligence services to more specifically target trafficking and capital movements that might be used to fund terrorist actions. The Minister for Finance and Public Accounts moreover advocated European and international capacity building to counter terrorism and its financing. 
The report provides a resilience analysis by studying two protocols that are essential for the Internet to function correctly. The first one, BGP, enables Internet actors to transport data using routing statements. The second one, DNS, provides the mapping between a domain name and an IP address. 
The first part of this paper takes an approach guided by strategic thinking in order to reveal the attributes of these global “commons” from a military standpoint (I). The second takes a look at the US grand strategy, both as an epicentre and a disseminator of the concept of the global commons (II). The third part outlines how emerging powers such as China and Russia envisage the “global commons” as a term, as well as the resulting strategic issues (III). The final section will put forth a series of transformations that the global commons reveal on the world strategy stage (IV). 
This study is both a doctrine note and a prospective analysis. It focuses on the idea that the contribution of the armed forces to the prevention of external crises can be considered for all the spectrum of action, including targeted and limited coercion and show of power. 
The French Ministry of Defence has been engaged in the study of death in the military since January, 2013. This paper is a presentation of the results of the different initiatives that have been undertaken over the past 18 to 24 months.
This brochure is a summary of the main figures concerning Defence. It presents the budget data, the number of personnel, the armed forces’ equipment and the forces deployed outside Metropolitan France. 2014 is the first year of the implementation of the 2013 French White Paper’s new guidance and of the 2014-2019 Military Programming Law. 
Although France has its own interests and specific political commitments in this region, it also understands the need to join forces to face common risks and threats that affect us all in this globalized world. France’s foreign policy in the Asia-Pacific and the rest of the world is founded on values of democracy, respect for the rule of law, and international law, as well as the objectives of security and the peaceful settlement of disputes. 
It is five years since the last White Paper was published. Major events have occurred in the intervening period and the volatile strategic context alluded to in the 2008 White Paper has been confirmed. France needs to assess the implications of this for its defence and national security strategy. In a rapidly changing world, France needs to be able to react swiftly, whilst ensuring that its response is part of a strategic vision. The timeframe for this White Paper is thus a long-term one, extending over some 15 years. The defence and national security strategy aims to set out the principles, priorities, action frameworks and resources needed to ensure France's security for the long term. The strategy will now be revised regularly, every five years, while continuing to take a long-term perspective.